Spatiotemporal regulation of GIPR signaling impacts glucose homeostasis as revealed in studies of a common GIPR variant.

TitleSpatiotemporal regulation of GIPR signaling impacts glucose homeostasis as revealed in studies of a common GIPR variant.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsYammine, L, Picatoste, B, Abdullah, N, Leahey, RA, Johnson, EF, Gómez-Banoy, N, Rosselot, C, Wen, J, Hossain, T, Goncalves, MD, Lo, JC, Garcia-Ocana, A, McGraw, TE
JournalMol Metab
Date Published2023 Nov 02

OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has a role in controlling postprandial metabolic tone. In humans, a GIP receptor (GIPR) variant (Q354, rs1800437) is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and increased risk for Type 2 Diabetes. To better understand the impacts of GIPR-Q354 on metabolism, it is necessary to study it in an isogeneic background to the predominant GIPR isoform, E354. To accomplish this objective, we used CRISPR-CAS9 editing to generate mouse models of GIPR-Q354 and GIPR-E354. Here we characterize the metabolic effects of GIPR-Q354 variant in a mouse model (GIPR-Q350).

METHODS: We generated the GIPR-Q350 mice for in vivo studies of metabolic impact of the variant. We isolated pancreatic islets from GIPR-Q350 mice to study insulin secretion ex vivo. We used a β-cell cell line to understand the impact of the GIPR-Q354 variant on the receptor traffic.

RESULTS: We found that female GIPR-Q350 mice are leaner than littermate controls, and male GIPR-Q350 mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, in line with the association of the variant with reduced BMI in humans. GIPR-Q350 mice of both sexes are more glucose tolerant and exhibit an increased sensitivity to GIP. Postprandial GIP levels are reduced in GIPR-Q350 mice, revealing feedback regulation that balances the increased sensitivity of GIP target tissues to secretion of GIP from intestinal endocrine cells. The increased GIP sensitivity is recapitulated ex vivo during glucose stimulated insulin secretion assays in islets. Generation of cAMP in islets downstream of GIPR activation is not affected by the Q354 substitution. However, post-activation traffic of GIPR-Q354 variant in β-cells is altered, characterized by enhanced intracellular dwell time and increased localization to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data link altered intracellular traffic of the GIPR-Q354 variant with GIP control of metabolism. We propose that this change in spatiotemporal signaling underlies the physiologic effects of GIPR-Q350/4 and GIPR-E350/4 in mice and humans. These findings contribute to a more complete understanding of the impact of GIPR-Q354 variant on glucose homeostasis that could perhaps be leveraged to enhance pharmacologic targeting of GIPR for the treatment of metabolic disease.

Alternate JournalMol Metab
PubMed ID37925022