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Linking Arrhythmias and Adipocytes: Insights, Mechanisms, and Future Directions.

TitleLinking Arrhythmias and Adipocytes: Insights, Mechanisms, and Future Directions.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsPabon, MA, Manocha, K, Cheung, JW, Lo, JC
JournalFront Physiol
Volume9
Pagination1752
Date Published2018
ISSN1664-042X
Abstract

Obesity and atrial fibrillation have risen to epidemic levels worldwide and may continue to grow over the next decades. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity promotes atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. This has led to trials employing various strategies with the ultimate goal of decreasing the atrial arrhythmic burden in obese patients. The effectiveness of these interventions remains to be determined. Obesity is defined by the expansion of adipose mass, making adipocytes a prime candidate to mediate the pro-arrhythmogenic effects of obesity. The molecular mechanisms linking obesity and adipocytes to increased arrhythmogenicity in both the atria and ventricles remain poorly understood. In this focused review, we highlight areas of potential molecular interplay between adipocytes and cardiomyocytes. The effects of adipocytes may be direct, local or remote. Direct effect refers to adipocyte or fatty infiltration of the atrial and ventricular myocardium itself, possibly causing increased dispersion of normal myocardial electrical signals and fibrotic substrate of adipocytes that promote reentry or adipocytes serving as a direct source of aberrant signals. Local effects may originate from nearby adipose depots, specifically epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and pericardial adipose tissue, which may play a role in the secretion of adipokines and chemokines that can incite inflammation given the direct contact and disrupt the conduction system. Adipocytes can also have a remote effect on the myocardium arising from their systemic secretion of adipokines, cytokines and metabolites. These factors may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy, autonomic dysfunction, and cardiomyocyte death to ultimately produce a pro-arrhythmogenic state. By better understanding the molecular mechanisms connecting dysfunctional adipocytes and arrhythmias, novel therapies may be developed to sever the link between obesity and arrhythmias.

DOI10.3389/fphys.2018.01752
Alternate JournalFront Physiol
PubMed ID30568603
PubMed Central IDPMC6290087