Adipose Signals Regulating Distal Organ Health and Disease.

TitleAdipose Signals Regulating Distal Organ Health and Disease.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsGilani, A, Stoll, L, Homan, EA, Lo, JC
Date Published2024 Feb 01
KeywordsAdipokines, Adipose Tissue, Adipose Tissue, Brown, Adiposity, Complement Factor D, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Humans, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Lipids, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Obesity, Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma

Excessive adiposity in obesity is a significant risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other cardiometabolic diseases. An unhealthy expansion of adipose tissue (AT) results in reduced adipogenesis, increased adipocyte hypertrophy, adipocyte hypoxia, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance. This ultimately culminates in AT dysfunction characterized by decreased secretion of antidiabetic adipokines such as adiponectin and adipsin and increased secretion of proinflammatory prodiabetic adipokines including RBP4 and resistin. This imbalance in adipokine secretion alters the physiological state of AT communication with target organs including pancreatic β-cells, heart, and liver. In the pancreatic β-cells, adipokines are known to have a direct effect on insulin secretion, gene expression, cell death, and/or dedifferentiation. For instance, impaired secretion of adipsin, which promotes insulin secretion and β-cell identity, results in β-cell failure and T2D, thus presenting a potential druggable target to improve and/or preserve β-cell function. The cardiac tissue is affected by both the classic white AT-secreted adipokines and the newly recognized brown AT (BAT)-secreted BATokines or lipokines that alter lipid deposition and ventricular function. In the liver, adipokines affect hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid accumulation, and insulin sensitivity, underscoring the importance of adipose-liver communication in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this perspective, we outline what is currently known about the effects of individual adipokines on pancreatic β-cells, liver, and the heart.

Alternate JournalDiabetes
PubMed ID38241508
PubMed Central IDPMC10796297
Grant List1 T32 HL160520 / GF / NIH HHS / United States